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Volume 7 Issue 1, February 2008



  • ORIGINAL RESEARCH up

    • C. Kechavarzi, K. Soga, T. Illangasekare and P. Nikolopoulos
      Laboratory Study of Immiscible Contaminant Flow in Unsaturated Layered Sands
      Two-dimensional multiphase flow experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of textural interfaces and initial water content on LNAPL migration during transient flow in the unsaturated zone. Capillary barrier effects on LNAPL migration at layer interfaces are shown to be strongly dependent on initial water content and textural contrasts.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2006.0177
      Vadose Zone Journal 2008 7:1-9
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    • P. van der Keur, J. R. Hansen, S. Hansen and J. C. Refsgaard
      Uncertainty in Simulation of Nitrate Leaching at Field and Catchment Scale within the Odense River Basin
      Uncertainty assessments using physically based hydrological modeling at the catchment scale may not be computationally feasible. A framework for conducting an uncertainty assessment using Monte Carlo technique by modifying the unsaturated component of a coupled rootzone-groundwater model is provided and applied for the Odense catchment in Denmark.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2006.0186
      Vadose Zone Journal 2008 7:10-21
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    • M. H. Young, G. S. Campbell and J. Yin
      Correcting Dual-Probe Heat-Pulse Readings for Changes in Ambient Temperature
      We developed a new method of analyzing dual-probe heat-pulse data that included optimization of water content, needle spacing, and changes in ambient temperature. The method included temperature dependency of thermal conductivity. Results showed significantly smoother water content values. Precipitation events can be detected as low as 2 mm.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2007.0015
      Vadose Zone Journal 2008 7:22-30
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    • Haruyuki Fujimaki, Yoshitake Ando, Yibin Cui and Mitsuhiro Inoue
      Parameter Estimation of a Root Water Uptake Model under Salinity Stress
      We present a cost-effective and reliable method to determine parameter values in a root water uptake model. Water content and salinity in the root zone were observed using TDR, but not used in the objective function. By using daily transpiration in the objective function, our inverse method is not affected by inaccuracy in hydraulic conductivity.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2007.0025
      Vadose Zone Journal 2008 7:31-38
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    • Amor V.M. Ines and Binayak P. Mohanty
      Near-Surface Soil Moisture Assimilation for Quantifying Effective Soil Hydraulic Properties under Different Hydroclimatic Conditions
      A genetic algorithm was used to estimate effective vadose zone soil water retention and hydraulic conductivity functions using near-surface soil moisture content as conditioning data in inverse modeling. The algorithm was tested in different hydroclimatic regions including semihumid Oklahoma, humid Iowa and Illinois, and temperate humid China.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2007.0048
      Vadose Zone Journal 2008 7:39-52
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    • David Russo, Jacob Zaidel and Asher Laufer
      Numerical Analysis of Solute Transport from Trickle Sources in a Combined Desert Soil–Imported Soil Flow System
      Agricultural use of stony desert soils may be improved by application of imported soil materials into trenches aligned along the crop rows. We investigated the effect of the type of imported soil material, the trench geometry, the discharge of the trickle line laterals, and the plant root pattern on solute leaching efficiency.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2007.0050
      Vadose Zone Journal 2008 7:53-66
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    • D. M. Wellman, A. P. Gamerdinger, D. I. Kaplan and R. J. Serne
      Effect of Particle-Scale Heterogeneity on Uranium(VI) Transport in Unsaturated Porous Media
      Uranium (VI) sorption and transport was evaluated in mixtures of silt loam and coarse sand sediments using traditional static batch sorption, saturated column, and unsaturated centrifugation experiments to evaluate the association of mobile and immobile water domains with particles of different size and surface reactivity.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2007.0076
      Vadose Zone Journal 2008 7:67-78
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    • Yukiyoshi Iwata, Masaki Hayashi and Tomoyoshi Hirota
      Comparison of Snowmelt Infiltration under Different Soil-Freezing Conditions Influenced by Snow Cover
      A 4-yr field study was conducted in Hokkaido, Japan, where frost depths have been decreasing due to climate change. The soil was frozen or unfrozen depending on snow-cover conditions. Meltwater infiltrated almost completely in both frozen and unfrozen years, implying that the shallow frost in recent years no longer impedes snowmelt infiltration.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2007.0089
      Vadose Zone Journal 2008 7:79-86
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    • Muhammed Khlosi, Wim M. Cornelis, Ahmed Douaik, Martinus Th. van Genuchten and Donald Gabriels
      Performance Evaluation of Models That Describe the Soil Water Retention Curve between Saturation and Oven Dryness
      Using 137 soil samples from the UNSODA database, we compared eight closed-form unimodal analytical expressions that describe the soil-water retention curve over the complete range of soil-water contents. The expressions were evaluated in terms of their accuracy, linearity, and prediction potential.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2007.0099
      Vadose Zone Journal 2008 7:87-96
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    • Liping Pang, Malcolm McLeod, Jacqueline Aislabie, Jirka Šimůnek, Murray Close and Ross Hector
      Modeling Transport of Microbes in Ten Undisturbed Soils under Effluent Irrigation
      Transport of microbial indicators and bromide in 10 types of undisturbed soils was evaluated using a mobile-immobile model. Soil structure was found most important in velocity enhancement of microbes and Br transport, while soil lithology had greatest influence on the attenuation of microbes and mass exchange between the two regions.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2007.0108
      Vadose Zone Journal 2008 7:97-111
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  • TECHNICAL NOTES up

    • H.-J. Vogel and O. Ippisch
      Estimation of a Critical Spatial Discretization Limit for Solving Richards' Equation at Large Scales
      The discretization scale for the numerical solution of Richards' equation is limited toward large scales. Depending on the soil water characteristic, it is in the range between millimeters and decimeters.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2006.0182
      Vadose Zone Journal 2008 7:112-114
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    • R. C. Schwartz, R. L. Baumhardt and T. A. Howell
      Estimation of Soil Water Balance Components Using an Iterative Procedure
      We developed an iterative plane-of-zero flux method to optimize hydraulic parameters using mean field time-domain reflectometry soil water contents and calculated changes in soil water storage. Subhourly drainage, evaporation, and infiltration rates are subsequently estimated for a season using fitted hydraulic parameters and measured soil water contents.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2007.0006
      Vadose Zone Journal 2008 7:115-123
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    • Zhaosheng Fan and Francis X. M. Casey
      Estimating Solute Transport Parameters Using Stochastic Ranking Evolutionary Strategy
      Many pollutants undergo complex multiple fate and transport process in soil, and identification of these processes is incredibly difficult. This technical note provides a unique application of an advanced computational method that uniquely and confidently identifies processes parameters.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2007.0021
      Vadose Zone Journal 2008 7:124-130
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    • W. D. Reynolds
      Alternative Unsaturated Flow Analyses for the Falling-Head Ring Infiltrometer
      The classical analysis for determining field-saturated hydraulic conductivity from falling-head ring infiltrometer measurements is problematic when the ratio of standpipe to ring cross-sectional area (R) equals the change in porous medium water content. An alternative analysis is presented that applies for 0 < R < infinity, including R equal to the change in porous medium water content. Also presented is an improved simplified analysis for estimating field-saturated hydraulic conductivity when standpipe drawdown is small and R is less than the change in porous medium water content.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2007.0045
      Vadose Zone Journal 2008 7:131-135
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  • SPECIAL SECTION: GROUND PENETRATING RADAR IN HYDROGEOPHYSICS up

    • Sébastien Lambot, Andrew Binley, Evert Slob and Susan Hubbard
      Ground Penetrating Radar in Hydrogeophysics
      The guest editors introduce the papers in the special section, which represent a wide range of surface and borehole GPR applications, including GPR sensitivity to contaminant plumes, new methods for soil water content determination, three-dimensional imaging of the subsurface, time-lapse monitoring of hydrodynamic events and inversion techniques for soil hydraulic properties estimation, and joint interpretation of GPR and electric resistivity tomography data.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2007.0180
      Vadose Zone Journal 2008 7:137-139
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    • Nigel J. Cassidy
      GPR Attenuation and Scattering in a Mature Hydrocarbon Spill: A Modeling Study
      Ground-penetrating radar is becoming an increasingly popular tool for the characterization of hydrocarbon-related groundwater pollution. Data interpretation, however, can be extremely complex, particularly in mature near-surface environments. By combining numerical modeling with dielectric analysis, it has been possible to simulate the GPR response of both “clean” and contaminated environments and show that variations in contaminant distribution and saturation index all produce different, yet characterizable, temporal and spectral GPR responses.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2006.0142
      Vadose Zone Journal 2008 7:140-159
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    • Francesco Soldovieri, Giancarlo Prisco and Raffaele Persico
      Application of Microwave Tomography in Hydrogeophysics: Some Examples
      This study used a microwave tomographic approach to determine the electromagnetic property of a soil. First, we introduce a strategy for determining the dielectric permittivity of the soil with the only a priori information that the target is electrically small. Then, we present numerical results achieved by using the microwave tomographic approach with synthetic data resembling the realistic situation of a layered soil.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2006.0147
      Vadose Zone Journal 2008 7:160-170
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    • C. P. Oden, G. R. Olhoeft, D. L. Wright and M. H. Powers
      Measuring the Electrical Properties of Soil Using a Calibrated Ground-Coupled GPR System
      Full calibration of both the amplitude and temporal response of ground-coupled ground penetrating radar systems is especially difficult because the antenna response changes as the properties of the ground beneath the antennas change. This paper discusses calibration methods and presents techniques to estimate subsurface properties using a fully calibrated system.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2006.0128
      Vadose Zone Journal 2008 7:171-183
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    • John H. Bradford
      Measuring Water Content Heterogeneity Using Multifold GPR with Reflection Tomography
      Ground penetrating radar reflection tomography coupled with petrophysical transforms has the potential to measure heterogeneity in the subsurface moisture content via an appropriate petrophysical transform. Through synthetic and field examples, I illustrate the potential for this methodology to improve vadose zone characterization.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2006.0160
      Vadose Zone Journal 2008 7:184-193
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    • David Goutaland, Thierry Winiarski, Jean-Sébastien Dubé, Grégory Bièvre, Jean-François Buoncristiani, Michel Chouteau and Bernard Giroux
      Hydrostratigraphic Characterization of Glaciofluvial Deposits Underlying an Infiltration Basin Using Ground Penetrating Radar
      Our aim was to improve the knowledge of the spatial distribution of soil hydraulic properties in the vadose zone underlying a stormwater infiltration basin. Ground penetrating radar was used to characterize subsurface heterogeneities at the lithofacies scale. This work is a key step in the comprehension of unsaturated water flow such as preferential flow paths.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2007.0003
      Vadose Zone Journal 2008 7:194-207
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    • Albane Saintenoy, Sébastien Schneider and Piotr Tucholka
      Evaluating Ground Penetrating Radar Use for Water Infiltration Monitoring
      Water infiltrated from a borehole at about 1-m depth into a natural Fontainebleau sand deposit layer was monitored using a surface ground penetrating radar (GPR) system. Observed GPR reflections were interpreted using hydrodynamic and electromagnetic wave propagation numerical modeling.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2007.0132
      Vadose Zone Journal 2008 7:208-214
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    • Rita Deiana, Giorgio Cassiani, Alberto Villa, Andrea Bagliani and Vittorio Bruno
      Calibration of a Vadose Zone Model Using Water Injection Monitored by GPR and Electrical Resistance Tomography
      Water injection into the vadose zone of a Quaternary sand and gravel aquifer was monitored using geophysical cross-hole methods. Estimates of moisture content changes were derived across space and time. The results were used to calibrate a three-dimensional unsaturated flow model, yielding estimates of saturated hydraulic conductivity at the field scale.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2006.0137
      Vadose Zone Journal 2008 7:215-226
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    • Majken C. Looms, Karsten H. Jensen, Andrew Binley and Lars Nielsen
      Monitoring Unsaturated Flow and Transport Using Cross-Borehole Geophysical Methods
      Unsaturated flow and transport was monitored using cross-borehole electrical resistivity tomography and ground penetrating radar. One-dimensional moment analysis of estimated tracer concentration profiles was performed using data collected during a 20-d-long forced tracer infiltration experiment.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2006.0129
      Vadose Zone Journal 2008 7:227-237
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    • Majken C. Looms, Andrew Binley, Karsten H. Jensen, Lars Nielsen and Thomas M. Hansen
      Identifying Unsaturated Hydraulic Parameters Using an Integrated Data Fusion Approach on Cross-Borehole Geophysical Data
      Following an integrated data fusion approach, cross-borehole geophysical methods are used to constrain the unsaturated flow parameters of a 12-m-deep volume of the unsaturated zone. The data describes large dynamic changes caused by forced infiltration of water and solute tracer applied over an approximately 50 square meter area at the surface.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2007.0087
      Vadose Zone Journal 2008 7:238-248
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    • Thomas M. Hansen, Majken C. Looms and Lars Nielsen
      Inferring the Subsurface Structural Covariance Model Using Cross-Borehole Ground Penetrating Radar Tomography
      We present a novel approach for inferring the stochastic properties of the subsurface, given indirect data observations. The method is illustrated using a cross-borehole ground penetrating radar tomography example.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2006.0144
      Vadose Zone Journal 2008 7:249-262
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    • Knud S. Cordua, Majken C. Looms and Lars Nielsen
      Accounting for Correlated Data Errors during Inversion of Cross-Borehole Ground Penetrating Radar Data
      Cross-borehole GPR data used in hydrogeophysical studies are often contaminated by correlated errors, which may severely contaminate the tomographic images if standard methods are used. We present a method to suppress such errors in order to obtain more trustworthy tomographic images and, subsequently, more reliable models of water saturation.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2007.0008
      Vadose Zone Journal 2008 7:263-271
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    • M. Bagher Farmani, Henk Keers and Nils-Otto Kitterød
      Time-Lapse GPR Tomography of Unsaturated Water Flow in an Ice-Contact Delta
      Using ground penetrating radar and an advanced tomography algorithm, we derived high-resolution images of soil water content distribution in the vadose zone of an ice-contact delta in Norway. The resulting water content distribution indicated that funneling of water flow occurs within the vadose zone of the delta.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2006.0132
      Vadose Zone Journal 2008 7:272-283
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  • SPECIAL SECTION: TOUGH2 up

    • Hui-Hai Liu and Tissa H. Illangasekare
      Preface: Recent Advances in Modeling Multiphase Flow and Transport with the TOUGH Family of Codes
      The guest editors introduce the papers in the special section, which addresses the modeling advances and use of the TOUGH family of codes. This special section contains revised and expanded versions of a selected set of papers presented at a symposium at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2007.0113
      Vadose Zone Journal 2008 7:284-286
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    • Stefan Finsterle and Michael B. Kowalsky
      Joint Hydrological–Geophysical Inversion for Soil Structure Identification
      A method is presented for identifying both the subsurface structure and the parameters describing unsaturated flow. The geostatistical characteristics of the soil are extracted from the high-resolution information contained in geophysical data and the observed hydrological response to a water infiltration experiment.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2006.0078
      Vadose Zone Journal 2008 7:287-293
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    • Darby J. VanAntwerp, Ronald W. Falta and John S. Gierke
      Numerical Simulation of Field-Scale Contaminant Mass Transfer during Air Sparging
      The authors introduce a dual-domain multiphase flow approach, with the objective of avoiding the overprediction of mass removal during air sparging associated with traditional flow models. The dual-domain approach provides a better fit to the experimental data of both a 2-D laboratory-scale experiment and a 3-D field-scale experiment involving air sparging remediation of PCE.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2006.0126
      Vadose Zone Journal 2008 7:294-304
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    • Tianfu Xu
      Incorporating Aqueous Reaction Kinetics and Biodegradation into TOUGHREACT: Applying a Multiregion Model to Hydrobiogeochemical Transport of Denitrification and Sulfate Reduction
      Aqueous reaction kinetics and biodegradation through a general multiregion model has been implemented into the TOUGHREACT program. The model has been validated by an experiment of denitrification and sulfate reduction. The model is a useful tool to produce insight into microscopic processes and parameters.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2006.0130
      Vadose Zone Journal 2008 7:305-315
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    • Alfredo Battistelli
      Modeling Multiphase Organic Spills in Coastal Sites with TMVOC V.2.0
      Compositional simulations of three-phase multicomponent organic spills in the unsaturated zone of a coastal site, in the presence of seawater intrusion in the unconfined aquifer beneath, are presented and discussed. The effect of seawater encroachment on the spatial distribution of VOCs dissolved in the groundwater is highlighted.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2006.0119
      Vadose Zone Journal 2008 7:316-324
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    • Lehua Pan, Jiming Jin, Norman Miller, Yu-Shu Wu and Gudmundur Bodvarsson
      Modeling Hydraulic Responses to Meteorological Forcing: From Canopy to Aquifer
      A model was developed to simulate land-surface and subsurface hydrologic response to meteorological forcing, by joining two widely used models: CLM3 (land surface) and TOUGH2 (subsurface). The new model greatly improved predictions of water table depth, evapotranspiration, surface temperature, and soil moisture for a watershed with an 18-year monitoring record.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2006.0106
      Vadose Zone Journal 2008 7:325-331
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    • Robert K. Podgorney and Jerry P. Fairley
      Investigation of Episodic Flow from Unsaturated Porous Media into a Macropore
      In this paper, capillary pressure and relative permeability functions are presented that describe flow from a porous media into an underlying macropore. Simulations using the macropore capillary pressure function matched experimental observations of episodic flow and were in general agreement for both flux and matrix capillary pressure.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2006.0107
      Vadose Zone Journal 2008 7:332-339
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    • Yu-Shu Wu and P. A. Forsyth
      Efficient Schemes for Reducing Numerical Dispersion in Modeling Multiphase Transport through Heterogeneous Geological Media
      Several total variation diminishing (TVD) or flux-limiter schemes are investigated in an effort to improve numerical accuracy in modeling multiphase flow and transport using multidimensional irregular unstructured grids. Test results show that these TVD schemes can effectively reduce numerical dispersion.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2006.0076
      Vadose Zone Journal 2008 7:340-349
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    • Alan L. Flint, Lorraine E. Flint and Michael D. Dettinger
      Modeling Soil Moisture Processes and Recharge under a Melting Snowpack
      The mechanisms of recharge into granitic bedrock underlying a melting snowpack were investigated using measurements and numerical modeling to show that the snowpack melts and freezes diurnally and melt water ponds and infiltrates into the fractured granite at a rate limited by its hydraulic conductivity.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2006.0135
      Vadose Zone Journal 2008 7:350-357
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  • REVIEW AND ANALYSIS up

    • D. A. Robinson, C. S. Campbell, J. W. Hopmans, B. K. Hornbuckle, S. B. Jones, R. Knight, F. Ogden, J. Selker and O. Wendroth
      Soil Moisture Measurement for Ecological and Hydrological Watershed-Scale Observatories: A Review
      Soil water content is a key state variable that needs to be determined in watershed-scale observatories. Instrumentation methods are reviewed, including geophysics and sensor networks, that will advance the research to improve spatial measurement in small watersheds.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2007.0143
      Vadose Zone Journal 2008 7:358-389
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  • BOOK REVIEWS up

    • Richard Howitt
      Water Productivity in Agriculture: Limits and Opportunities for Improvement
      Edited by Jacob Kijne, Randolf Barker, and David Molden. CABI Publishing, Cambridge, MA. 2003. Hardcover, 354 pp. ISBN-10: 0-85199-669-8. ISBN-13: 978-0-85199-669-1.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2007.0085br
      Vadose Zone Journal 2008 7:390-391
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    • Robert M. Holt
      Unsaturated-Zone Modeling: Progress, Challenges, and Applications
      Edited by R.A. Feddes, G.H. de Rooij, and J.C. van Dam. Kluwer Academic. 2004. 364 pp. $138.00. ISBN-10: 1402029172. ISBN-13: 9781402029172.
      doi:10.2136/vzj2006.0162br
      Vadose Zone Journal 2008 7:392-393
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  • THANKS TO OUR REVIEWERS up

  • ERRATUM up

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