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Journal of Environmental Quality : Just Published

 

Accepted, edited articles are published here after author proofing to provide rapid publication and better access to the newest research in the Journal of Environmental Quality. Articles are compiled into bimonthly issues at www.agronomy.org/publications/jeq, www.crops.org/publications/jeq, and www.soils.org/publications/jeq, which include the complete archive. Citation | Articles posted here are considered published and may be cited by the doi.

Maguire, R.O., P.J. A. Kleinman, C.J. Dell, D.B. Beegle, R.C. Brandt, J.M. McGrath, and Q.M. Ketterings. 2011. Manure application technology in reduced tillage and forage systems: A review. J. Environ. Qual. doi: 10.2134/jeq2009.0228

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Current issue: J. Environ. Qual. 44(1)



  • ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTANTS AND TRACE GASES

    • Javed Iqbal, David C. Mitchell, Daniel W. Barker, Fernando Miguez, John E. Sawyer, Jose Pantoja and Michael J. Castellano
      Does Nitrogen Fertilizer Application Rate to Corn Affect Nitrous Oxide Emissions from the Rotated Soybean Crop?

      Little information exists on the potential for N fertilizer application to corn (Zea mays L.) to affect N2O emissions during subsequent unfertilized crops in a rotation. To determine if N fertilizer application to corn affects N2O emissions during subsequent crops in rotation, we measured N2O emissions for 3 yr (2011–2013) in an Iowa, corn–soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] rotation with three N fertilizer rates applied to corn (0 kg N ha−1, the recommended rate of 135 kg N ha−1, and a high rate of 225 kg N ha−1); soybean received no N fertilizer. We further investigated the potential for a winter cereal rye (Secale cereale L.) cover crop to interact with N fertilizer rate to affect N2O emissions from both crops. The cover crop did not consistently affect N2O emissions. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/jeq2014.09.0378
      Published: February 27, 2015



  • GROUNDWATER QUALITY

    • Joshua W. Kasper, Judith M. Denver and Joanna K. York
      Suburban Groundwater Quality as Influenced by Turfgrass and Septic Sources, Delmarva Peninsula, USA

      Suburban land use is expanding in many parts of the United States and there is a need to better understand the potential water-quality impacts of this change. This study characterized groundwater quality in a sandy, water-table aquifer influenced by suburban development and compared the results to known patterns in water chemistry associated with natural, background conditions and agricultural effects. Samples for nutrients, major ions, and isotopes of N and O in NO3 were collected in 2011 beneath turfgrass from 29 shallow wells (median depth 3.7 m) and from 18 deeper wells (median depth 16.9 m) in a long-term suburban development. Nitrate (as N) concentrations in groundwater beneath turfgrass were highly variable (0.02–22.3 mg L−1) with a median of 2.7 mg L−1, which is higher than natural water chemistry (>0.4 mg L−1; Na+–Cl–HCO3 water type), but significantly lower than concentrations beneath a nearby agricultural area (median 16.9 mg L−1; p < .0001). (continued)


      doi:10.2134/jeq2014.06.0280
      Published: January 28, 2015



  • HEAVY METALS IN THE ENVIRONMENT

    • Zekarias M. Ogbazghi, Eyob H. Tesfamariam, John G. Annandale and Petrus C. De Jager
      Mobility and Uptake of Zinc, Cadmium, Nickel, and Lead in Sludge-Amended Soils Planted to Dryland Maize and Irrigated Maize–Oat Rotation

      Sludge application to agricultural lands is often limited mainly because of concerns about metal accumulation in soils and uptake by crops. The objective of the study was to test the following hypotheses: (i) in the short to medium term (5–10 yr), the application of good-quality sludge according to crop N requirements will not lead to significant accumulation of water-soluble metal fractions in soil, (ii) mobility and uptake of metals is higher under irrigated than dryland systems, and (iii) metal concentrations in plant tissue could reach phytotoxic levels before the soil reaches environmental threshold levels. Field plots were arranged in a randomized complete block design comprising four replications of three treatments (0, 8, and 16 Mg ha−1 yr−1 anaerobically digested municipal sludge) planted to dryland maize and irrigated maize–oat rotation. Soil and plant samples were collected after 7 yr of treatment application for selected metal analyses. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/jeq2014.06.0261
      Published: February 12, 2015



  • LANDSCAPE AND WATERSHED PROCESSES

    • X. C. (John) Zhang, G. H. Zhang, X. Wei and Y. H. Guan
      Evaluation of Cesium-137 Conversion Models and Parameter Sensitivity for Erosion Estimation

      The 137Cs technique has been widely used to provide soil redistribution estimates since the 1970s. However, most 137Cs-conversion models remain theoretical and largely unvalidated. Our objectives were to validate the four widely used conversion models, examine model parameter sensitivity, and evaluate the potential of using kriging to improve soil redistribution estimation. Soil loss was measured from a 1.6-ha plot since 1978. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/jeq2014.09.0371
      Published: February 20, 2015



  • ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN THE ENVIRONMENT

    • Yunjia Lai, Xinghui Xia, Jianwei Dong, Wenting Lin, Xinli Mou, Pujun Zhao, Xiaoman Jiang, Zhihuang Li, Yali Tong and Yunling Zhao
      Equilibrium State of PAHs in Bottom Sediment–Water–Suspended Sediment System of a Large River Considering Freely Dissolved Concentrations

      In natural waters, the equilibrium state of hydrophobic organic compounds among bottom sediment (BS), suspended sediment (SPS), and water is fundamental to infer their transfer flux and aqueous bioavailability. However, this type of information remains scarce and fragmented. This study systematically evaluated the equilibrium state of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Yangtze River. Total and freely dissolved concentrations of the 16 priority PAHs in pore water and overlying water (including surface and near-bottom) of the Yangtze middle reaches were investigated, as were the concentrations of attached PAHs in SPS and BS. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/jeq2014.09.0381
      Published: February 20, 2015



  • SHORT COMMUNICATIONS

    • Rebecca A. M. Peer, Julie A. LaBar, Brandon K. Winfrey, Robert W. Nairn, Freddy S. Llanos López and William H. J. Strosnider
      Removal of Less Commonly Addressed Metals via Passive Cotreatment

      The viability of removing less commonly addressed metals (e.g., Cd, Cu, Ni, and Pb) in a passive cotreatment concept was tested using a microcosm-scale, three-stage batch reactor system in which acid mine drainage from an abandoned adit on Cerro Rico de Potosí and raw municipal wastewater from Potosí, Bolivia, were introduced at a 5:1 ratio. The acid mine drainage had pH 3.58, acidity 1080 mg L−1 as CaCO3 equivalent, and elevated concentrations of dissolved Al, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cd, Cu, Ni, and Pb, among other metals/metalloids. The municipal wastewater had pH 9.05 and alkalinity 418 mg L−1 as CaCO3 equivalent, with 5.6 and 38 mg L−1 of nitrate and phosphate, respectively. Previous analyses noted substantial pH increase, phosphate removal, denitrification, and removal of Al, Fe, Mn, and Zn. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/jeq2014.08.0338
      Published: February 20, 2015



    • Kristof Dorau and Tim Mansfeldt
      Manganese-Oxide-Coated Redox Bars as an Indicator of Reducing Conditions in Soils

      Identification of reducing conditions in soils is of concern not only for pedogenesis but also for nutrient and pollutant dynamics. We manufactured manganese (Mn)-oxide-coated polyvinyl chloride bars and proved their suitability for the identification of reducing soil conditions. Birnessite was synthesized and coated onto white polyvinyl chloride bars. The dark brown coatings were homogenous and durable. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/jeq2014.03.0140
      Published: January 9, 2015



  • SPECIAL SECTION: IMPROVING NITROGEN USE EFFICIENCY IN CROP AND LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION SYSTEMS

    • J. M. Powell and C. A. Rotz
      Measures of Nitrogen Use Efficiency and Nitrogen Loss from Dairy Production Systems

      In dairy production systems, tradeoffs can occur between fertilizer N applications and crop N use, feed N consumption and manure N excretion, and environmental impacts. This paper examines (i) how stocking rates affect N imports and management on dairy farms, N use efficiency (NUE; i.e., the amount of applied N incorporated into product N), and N loss; (ii) how reductions in fertilizer N and feed N may affect crop and milk production, NUE, and N loss; and (iii) why tradeoffs in N use outcomes should be considered when attempting to enhance overall NUE and reduce N loss. T (continued)


      doi:10.2134/jeq2014.07.0299
      Published: February 27, 2015



    • Xin Zhang, Denise L. Mauzerall, Eric A. Davidson, David R. Kanter and Ruohong Cai
      The Economic and Environmental Consequences of Implementing Nitrogen-Efficient Technologies and Management Practices in Agriculture

      Technologies and management practices (TMPs) that reduce the application of nitrogen (N) fertilizer while maintaining crop yields can improve N use efficiency (NUE) and are important tools for meeting the dual challenges of increasing food production and reducing N pollution. However, because farmers operate to maximize their profits, incentives to implement TMPs are limited, and TMP implementation will not always reduce N pollution. Therefore, we have developed the NUE Economic and Environmental impact analytical framework (NUE3) to examine the economic and environmental consequences of implementing TMPs in agriculture, with a specific focus on farmer profits, N fertilizer consumption, N losses, and cropland demand. Our analytical analyses show that impact of TMPs on farmers’ economic decision-making and the environment is affected by how TMPs change the yield ceiling and the N fertilization rate at the ceiling and by how the prices of TMPs, fertilizer, and crops vary. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/jeq2014.03.0129
      Published: December 16, 2014



    • Corey Lacey and Shalamar Armstrong
      The Efficacy of Winter Cover Crops to Stabilize Soil Inorganic Nitrogen after Fall-Applied Anhydrous Ammonia

      There is a dearth of knowledge on the ability of cover crops to increase the effectiveness of fall-applied nitrogen (N). The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of two cover crop species to stabilize inorganic soil N after a fall application of N. Fall N was applied at a rate of 200 kg N ha−1 into living stands of cereal rye, tillage radish, and a control (no cover crop) at the Illinois State University Research and Teaching Farm in Lexington, Illinois. Cover crops were sampled to determine N uptake, and soil samples were collected in the spring at four depths to 80 cm to determine the distribution of inorganic N within the soil profile. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/jeq2013.12.0529
      Published: September 26, 2014



    • Fabián G. Fernández, Richard E. Terry and Eric G. Coronel
      Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Anhydrous Ammonia, Urea, and Polymer-Coated Urea in Illinois Cornfields

      The use of alternative N sources relative to conventional ones could mitigate soil-surface N2O emissions. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of anhydrous ammonia (AA), urea, and polymer-coated urea (ESN) on N2O emissions for continuous corn (Zea mays L.) production. Corn received 110 kg N ha−1 in 2009 and 180 kg N ha−1 in 2010 and 2011. Soil N2O fluxes were measured one to three times per week early in the growing season and less frequently later, using vented non–steady state closed chambers and a gas chromatograph. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/jeq2013.12.0496
      Published: August 15, 2014



    • Johnny R. Soares, Heitor Cantarella, Vitor P. Vargas, Janaina B. Carmo, Acácio A. Martins, Rafael M. Sousa and Cristiano A. Andrade
      Enhanced-Efficiency Fertilizers in Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Urea Applied to Sugarcane

      The environmental benefits of producing biofuels from sugarcane have been questioned due to greenhouse gas emissions during the biomass production stage, especially nitrous oxide (N2O) associated with nitrogen (N) fertilization. The objective of this work was to evaluate the use of nitrification inhibitors (NIs) dicyandiamide (DCD) and 3,4 dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) and a controlled-release fertilizer (CRF) to reduce N2O emissions from urea, applied at a rate of 120 kg ha−1 of N. Two field experiments in ratoon cycle sugarcane were performed in Brazil. The treatments were (i) no N (control), (ii) urea, (iii) urea+DCD, (iv) urea+DMPP, and (v) CRF. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/jeq2014.02.0096
      Published: August 8, 2014



    • Michelle L. McCrackin, John A. Harrison and Jana E. Compton
      Future Riverine Nitrogen Export to Coastal Regions in the United States: Prospects for Improving Water Quality

      Nitrogen (N) fluxes generated by an increasing human population have the potential to increase coastal riverine N loading, with implications for areas already degraded by elevated nutrient loads. Here we examine contemporary (year 2005) and future (year 2030) loading of total dissolved N (TDN) in the continental United States using the Nutrient Export from WaterSheds model (NEWS2US–TDN). Model-derived TDN estimates compared well with measured export of 29 catchments that represent 65% of land surface area for the continental United States (Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency = 0.83). Future output is based on scenarios that reflect future population growth and “business as usual” (BAU) and “ambitious” (AMB) approaches to nutrient management. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/jeq2014.02.0081
      Published: August 8, 2014



    • Mark B. David, Courtney G. Flint, Lowell E. Gentry, Mallory K. Dolan, George F. Czapar, Richard A. Cooke and Tito Lavaire
      Navigating the Socio-Bio-Geo-Chemistry and Engineering of Nitrogen Management in Two Illinois Tile-Drained Watersheds

      Reducing nitrate loads from corn and soybean, tile-drained, agricultural production systems in the Upper Mississippi River basin is a major challenge that has not been met. We evaluated a range of possible management practices from biophysical and social science perspectives that could reduce nitrate losses from tile-drained fields in the Upper Salt Fork and Embarras River watersheds of east-central Illinois. Long-term water quality monitoring on these watersheds showed that nitrate losses averaged 30.6 and 23.0 kg nitrate N ha-1 yr-1 (Embarras and Upper Salt Fork watersheds, respectively), with maximum nitrate concentrations between 14 and 18 mg N L-1. With a series of on-farm studies, we conducted tile monitoring to evaluate several possible nitrate reduction conservation practices. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/jeq2014.01.0036
      Published: July 25, 2014



    • Deanna L. Osmond, Dana L. K. Hoag, Al E. Luloff, Donald W. Meals and Kathy Neas
      Farmers’ Use of Nutrient Management: Lessons from Watershed Case Studies

      Nutrient enrichment of water resources has degraded coastal waters throughout the world, including in the United States (e.g., Chesapeake Bay, Gulf of Mexico, and Neuse Estuary). Agricultural nonpoint sources have significant impacts on water resources. As a result, nutrient management planning is the primary tool recommended to reduce nutrient losses from agricultural fields. Its effectiveness requires nutrient management plans be used by farmers. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/jeq2014.02.0091
      Published: July 3, 2014



    • David R. Kanter, Xin Zhang and Denise L. Mauzerall
      Reducing Nitrogen Pollution while Decreasing Farmers’ Costs and Increasing Fertilizer Industry Profits

      Nitrogen (N) pollution is emerging as one of the most important environmental issues of the 21st Century, contributing to air and water pollution, climate change, and stratospheric ozone depletion. With agriculture being the dominant source, we tested whether it is possible to reduce agricultural N pollution in a way that benefits the environment, reduces farmers’ costs, and increases fertilizer industry profitability, thereby creating a “sweet spot” for decision-makers that could significantly increase the viability of improved N management initiatives. Although studies of the economic impacts of improved N management have begun to take into account farmers and the environment, this is the first study to consider the fertilizer industry. Our “sweet spot” hypothesis is evaluated via a cost-benefit analysis of moderate and ambitious N use efficiency targets in U.S. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/jeq2014.04.0173
      Published: December 16, 2014



    • Hans J. M. van Grinsven, Lex Bouwman, Kenneth G. Cassman, Harold M. van Es, Michelle L. McCrackin and Arthur H. W. Beusen
      Losses of Ammonia and Nitrate from Agriculture and Their Effect on Nitrogen Recovery in the European Union and the United States between 1900 and 2050

      Historical trends and levels of nitrogen (N) budgets and emissions to air and water in the European Union and the United States are markedly different. Agro-environmental policy approaches also differ, with emphasis on voluntary or incentive-based schemes in the United States versus a more regulatory approach in the European Union. This paper explores the implications of these differences for attaining long-term policy targets for air and water quality. Nutrient surplus problems were more severe in the European Union than in the United States during the 1970s and 1980s. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/jeq2014.03.0102
      Published: January 5, 2015



    • Marek K. Jarecki, Jerry L. Hatfield and Wiley Barbour
      Modeled Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Corn Fields in Iowa Based on County Level Data

      The U.S. Corn Belt area has the capacity to generate high nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions due to medium to high annual precipitation, medium- to heavy-textured soils rich in organic matter, and high nitrogen (N) application rates. The purpose of this work was to estimate N2O emissions from cornfields in Iowa at the county level using the DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC) model and to compare the DNDC N2O emission estimates with available results from field experiments. All data were acquired for 2007 to 2011. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/jeq2014.03.0100
      Published: November 14, 2014



    • Richard B. Ferguson
      Groundwater Quality and Nitrogen Use Efficiency in Nebraska’s Central Platte River Valley

      Groundwater nitrate contamination has been an issue in the Platte River Valley of Nebraska since the 1960s, with groundwater nitrate-N concentrations frequently in excess of 10 mg L−1. This article summarizes education and regulatory efforts to reduce the environmental impact of irrigated crop production in the Platte River Valley. In 1988, a Groundwater Management Area (GWMA) was implemented in the Central Platte Natural Resources District to encourage adoption of improved management practices. Since 1988, there have been steady declines in average groundwater nitrate-N concentrations of about 0.15 mg NO3–N L−1 yr−1 in much of the GWMA (from 19 to 15 mg NO3–N L−1). (continued)


      doi:10.2134/jeq2014.02.0085
      Published: November 11, 2014



    • Catharine Weber and Laura McCann
      Adoption of Nitrogen-Efficient Technologies by U.S. Corn Farmers

      Anthropogenically introduced nitrogen (N) has compromised environmental quality, but it is an essential element for crop production, particularly corn production. Increasing N use efficiency by adopting eco-innovations such as N soil testing, plant tissue testing, and N transformation inhibitors can ameliorate this problem. Data from the 2010 USDA Agricultural Resource Management Survey of corn producers was used to examine the factors affecting adoption of these practices. Twenty-one percent of the 1840 corn farmers had adopted N soil testing, 3% had adopted plant tissue testing, and 10% had adopted N inhibitors. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/jeq2014.02.0089
      Published: November 11, 2014



    • Michelle R. Perez
      Regulating Farmer Nutrient Management: A Three-State Case Study on the Delmarva Peninsula

      Growing concern about water quality issues, along with a series of fish kills in 1997, prompted Maryland, Delaware, and Virginia to adopt regulations to reduce nutrient pollution from agricultural nonpoint sources. All three states required farmers to follow a state-certified nutrient management plan that would “optimize crop yields and minimize environmental losses,” although the policy-making processes in each state were different. The objective of this political and policy analysis research was to determine if the policy-making process affected farmer compliance and whether nutrient management practices have improved. Sixty farmers on the Delmarva Peninsula, which includes all three states, who grew corn and used poultry manure as a nutrient source were interviewed, as were 68 policy stakeholders. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/jeq2014.07.0304
      Published: February 27, 2015



  • SPECIAL SECTION: PHOSPHORUS FATE, MANAGEMENT, AND MODELING IN ARTIFICIALLY DRAINED SYSTEMS

    • Kun Han, Peter J.A. Kleinman, Lou S. Saporito, Clinton Church, Joshua M. McGrath, Mark S. Reiter, Shawn C. Tingle, Arthur L. Allen, L.Q. Wang and Ray B. Bryant
      Phosphorus and Nitrogen Leaching Before and After Tillage and Urea Application

      Leaching of nutrients through agricultural soils is a priority water quality concern on the Atlantic Coastal Plain. This study evaluated the effect of tillage and urea application on leaching of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) from soils of the Delmarva Peninsula that had previously been under no-till management. Intact soil columns (30 cm wide × 50 cm deep) were irrigated for 6 wk to establish a baseline of leaching response. After 2 wk of drying, a subset of soil columns was subjected to simulated tillage (0–20 cm) in an attempt to curtail leaching of surface nutrients, especially P. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/jeq2014.08.0326
      Published: February 27, 2015



    • David E. Radcliffe, D. Keith Reid, Karin Blombäck, Carl H. Bolster, Amy S. Collick, Zachary M. Easton, Wendy Francesconi, Daniel R. Fuka, Holger Johnsson, Kevin King, Mats Larsbo, Mohamed A. Youssef, Alisha S. Mulkey, Nathan O. Nelson, Kristian Persson, John J. Ramirez-Avila, Frank Schmieder and Douglas R. Smith
      Applicability of Models to Predict Phosphorus Losses in Drained Fields: A Review

      Most phosphorus (P) modeling studies of water quality have focused on surface runoff loses. However, a growing number of experimental studies have shown that P losses can occur in drainage water from artificially drained fields. In this review, we assess the applicability of nine models to predict this type of P loss. A model of P movement in artificially drained systems will likely need to account for the partitioning of water and P into runoff, macropore flow, and matrix flow. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/jeq2014.05.0220
      Published: February 12, 2015



    • T. Q. Zhang, C. S. Tan, Z. M. Zheng, T. W. Welacky and W. D. Reynolds
      Impacts of Soil Conditioners and Water Table Management on Phosphorus Loss in Tile Drainage from a Clay Loam Soil

      Adoption of waste-derived soil conditioners and refined water management can improve soil physical quality and crop productivity of fine-textured soils. However, the impacts of these practices on water quality must be assessed to ensure environmental sustainability. We conducted a study to determine phosphorus (P) loss in tile drainage as affected by two types of soil conditioners (yard waste compost and swine manure compost) and water table management (free drainage and controlled drainage with subirrigation) in a clay loam soil under corn–soybean rotation in a 4-yr period from 1999 to 2003. Tile drainage flows were monitored and sampled on a year-round continuous basis using on-site auto-sampling systems. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/jeq2014.04.0154
      Published: February 6, 2015



    • Lars Bergström, Holger Kirchmann, Faruk Djodjic, Katarina Kyllmar, Barbro Ulén, Jian Liu, Helena Andersson, Helena Aronsson, Gunnar Börjesson, Pia Kynkäänniemi, Annika Svanbäck and Ana Villa
      Turnover and Losses of Phosphorus in Swedish Agricultural Soils: Long-Term Changes, Leaching Trends, and Mitigation Measures

      Transport of phosphorus (P) from agricultural fields to water bodies deteriorates water quality and causes eutrophication. To reduce P losses and optimize P use efficiency by crops, better knowledge is needed of P turnover in soil and the efficiency of best management practices (BMPs). In this review, we examined these issues using results from 10 Swedish long-term soil fertility trials and various studies on subsurface losses of P. The fertility trials are more than 50 years old and consist of two cropping systems with farmyard manure and mineral fertilizer. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/jeq2014.04.0165
      Published: January 16, 2015



    • Peter J. A. Kleinman, Clinton Church, Lou S. Saporito, Josh M. McGrath, Mark S. Reiter, Arthur L. Allen, Shawn Tingle, Greg D. Binford, Kun Han and Brad C. Joern
      Phosphorus Leaching from Agricultural Soils of the Delmarva Peninsula, USA

      Leaching of phosphorus (P) mobilizes edaphic and applied sources of P and is a primary pathway of concern in agricultural soils of the Delmarva Peninsula, which defines the eastern boundary of the eutrophic Chesapeake Bay. We evaluated P leaching before and after poultry litter application from intact soil columns (30 cm diameter × 50 cm depth) obtained from low- and high-P members of four dominant Delmarva Peninsula soils. Surface soil textures ranged from fine sand to silt loam, and Mehlich-3 soil P ranged from 64 to 628 mg kg−1. Irrigation of soil columns before litter application pointed to surface soil P controls on dissolved P in leachate (with soil P sorption saturation providing a stronger relationship than Mehlich-3 P); however, strong relationships between P in the subsoil (45–50 cm) and leachate P concentrations were also observed (r2 = 0.61–0.73). (continued)


      doi:10.2134/jeq2014.07.0301
      Published: January 16, 2015



    • Gary W. Feyereisen, Wendy Francesconi, Douglas R. Smith, Sharon K. Papiernik, Erik S. Krueger and Christopher D. Wente
      Effect of Replacing Surface Inlets with Blind or Gravel Inlets on Sediment and Phosphorus Subsurface Drainage Losses

      Open surface inlets that connect to subsurface tile drainage systems provide a direct pathway for movement of sediment, nutrients, and agrochemicals to surface waters. This study was conducted to determine the reduction in drainage effluent total suspended sediment (TSS) and phosphorus (P) concentrations and loads when open surface inlets were replaced with blind (in gravel capped with 30 cm of soil) or gravel (in very coarse sand/fine gravel) inlets. In Indiana, a pair of closed depressions in adjacent fields was fitted with open inlet tile risers and blind inlets in 2005 and monitored for flow and water chemistry. Paired comparisons on a storm event basis during the growing season for years 2006 to 2013 showed that TSS loads were 40.4 and 14.4 kg ha−1 event−1 for tile risers and blind inlets, respectively. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/jeq2014.05.0219
      Published: January 9, 2015



    • Helena Andersson, Lars Bergström, Barbro Ulén, Faruk Djodjic and Holger Kirchmann
      The Role of Subsoil as a Source or Sink for Phosphorus Leaching

      The importance of subsoil features for phosphorus (P) leaching is frequently mentioned, but subsoil effects are still poorly documented. This study examined whether the subsoil of four agricultural Swedish soils (two sand and two clay) functioned as a source or sink for P leaching by measuring P leaching from intact soil columns with topsoil (1.05 m deep) and without topsoil (0.77 m deep) over 3 yr. One sandy soil with high topsoil P content (Olsen P, 84 mg kg−1) and high subsoil sorption capacity (P sorption index [PSI], 3.7 mmol kg−1) had low leaching of dissolved reactive P (DRP) from full-length and subsoil lysimeters (0.12 and 0.08 kg ha−1 yr−1, respectively). The other sandy soil, with high Olsen P content in the topsoil and subsoil (27 and 19 mg kg−1, respectively) and low PSI in the subsoil (1.4 mmol kg−1), had high DRP leaching from full-length and subsoil lysimeters (3.33 and 3.29 kg ha−1 yr−1, respectively). (continued)


      doi:10.2134/jeq2014.04.0186
      Published: January 9, 2015



    • Emily Bock, Nick Smith, Mark Rogers, Brady Coleman, Mark Reiter, Brian Benham and Zachary M. Easton
      Enhanced Nitrate and Phosphate Removal in a Denitrifying Bioreactor with Biochar

      Denitrifying bioreactors (DNBRs) are an emerging technology used to remove nitrate-nitrogen (NO3) from enriched waters by supporting denitrifying microorganisms with organic carbon in an anaerobic environment. Field-scale investigations have established successful removal of NO3 from agricultural drainage, but the potential for DNBRs to remediate excess phosphorus (P) exported from agricultural systems has not been addressed. We hypothesized that biochar addition to traditional woodchip DNBRs would enhance NO3 and P removal and reduce nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions based on previous research demonstrating reduced leaching of NO3 and P and lower greenhouse gas production associated with biochar amendment of agricultural soils. Nine laboratory-scale DNBRs, a woodchip control, and eight different woodchip-biochar treatments were used to test the effect of biochar on nutrient removal. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/jeq2014.03.0111
      Published: July 15, 2014



    • Richard W. McDowell and Ross M. Monaghan
      Extreme Phosphorus Losses in Drainage from Grazed Dairy Pastures on Marginal Land

      With the installation of artificial drainage and large inputs of lime and fertilizer, dairy farming can be profitable on marginal land. We hypothesized that this will lead to large phosphorus (P) losses and potential surface water impairment if the soil has little capacity to sorb added P. Phosphorous was measured in drainage from three “marginal” soils used for dairying: an Organic soil that had been developed out of scrub for 2 yr and used for winter forage cropping, a Podzol that had been developed into pasture for 10 yr, and an intergrade soil that had been in pasture for 2 yr. Over 18 mo, drainage was similar among all sites (521–574 mm), but the load leached to 35-cm depth from the Organic soil was 87 kg P ha−1 (∼89% of fertilizer-P added); loads were 1.7 and 9.0 kg ha−1 from the Podzol and intergrade soils, respectively. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/jeq2014.04.0160
      Published: November 11, 2014



    • T. Q. Zhang, C. S. Tan, Z. M. Zheng and C. F. Drury
      Tile Drainage Phosphorus Loss with Long-Term Consistent Cropping Systems and Fertilization

      Phosphorus (P) loss in tile drainage water may vary with agricultural practices, and the impacts are often hard to detect with short-term studies. We evaluated the effects of long-term (≥43 yr) cropping systems (continuous corn [CC], corn–oats–alfalfa–alfalfa rotation [CR], and continuous grass [CS]) and fertilization (fertilization [F] vs. no-fertilization [NF]) on P loss in tile drainage water from a clay loam soil over a 4-yr period. Compared with NF, long-term fertilization increased concentrations and losses of dissolved reactive P (DRP), dissolved unreactive P (DURP), and total P (TP) in tile drainage water, with the increments following the order: CS > CR > CC. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/jeq2014.04.0188
      Published: December 1, 2014



    • David L. Bjorneberg, April B. Leytem, James A. Ippolito and Anita C. Koehn
      Phosphorus Losses from an Irrigated Watershed in the Northwestern United States: Case Study of the Upper Snake Rock Watershed

      Watersheds using surface water for irrigation often return a portion of the water to a water body. This irrigation return flow often includes sediment and nutrients that reduce the quality of the receiving water body. Research in the 82,000-ha Upper Snake Rock (USR) watershed from 2005 to 2008 showed that, on average, water diverted from the Snake River annually supplied 547 kg ha−1 of total suspended solids (TSS), 1.1 kg ha−1 of total P (TP), and 0.50 kg ha−1 of dissolved P (DP) to the irrigation tract. Irrigation return flow from the USR watershed contributed 414 kg ha−1 of TSS, 0.71 kg ha−1 of TP, and 0.32 kg ha−1 of DP back to the Snake River. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/jeq2014.04.0166
      Published: October 10, 2014



    • Patrick R. Nash, Kelly A. Nelson, Peter P. Motavalli, Manjula Nathan and Chris Dudenhoeffer
      Reducing Phosphorus Loss in Tile Water with Managed Drainage in a Claypan Soil

      Installing subsurface tile drain systems in poorly drained claypan soils to improve corn (Zea mays L.) yields could potentially increase environmental phosphorus (P) loss through the tile drainage system. The objectives of the study were to quantify the average concentration and loss of ortho-P in tile drain water from a claypan soil and to determine whether managed subsurface drainage (MD) could reduce ortho-P loss in tile water compared with free subsurface drainage (FD). Flow-weighted ortho-P concentration in the tile water was significantly lower with MD (0.09 mg L−1) compared with that of FD (0.15 mg L−1). Ortho-P loss in the tile water of this study was reduced with MD (36 g ha−1) by 80% compared with FD (180 g ha−1). (continued)


      doi:10.2134/jeq2014.04.0146
      Published: October 10, 2014



    • Douglas R. Smith, Kevin W. King, Laura Johnson, Wendy Francesconi, Pete Richards, Dave Baker and Andrew N. Sharpley
      Surface Runoff and Tile Drainage Transport of Phosphorus in the Midwestern United States

      The midwestern United States offers some of the most productive agricultural soils in the world. Given the cool humid climate, much of the region would not be able to support agriculture without subsurface (tile) drainage because high water tables may damage crops and prevent machinery usage in fields at critical times. Although drainage is designed to remove excess soil water as quickly as possible, it can also rapidly transport agrochemicals, including phosphorus (P). This paper illustrates the potential importance of tile drainage for P transport throughout the midwestern United States. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/jeq2014.04.0176
      Published: October 3, 2014



    • Kevin W. King, Mark R. Williams and Norman R. Fausey
      Contributions of Systematic Tile Drainage to Watershed-Scale Phosphorus Transport

      Phosphorus (P) transport from agricultural fields continues to be a focal point for addressing harmful algal blooms and nuisance algae in freshwater systems throughout the world. In humid, poorly drained regions, attention has turned to P delivery through subsurface tile drainage. However, research on the contributions of tile drainage to watershed-scale P losses is limited. The objective of this study was to evaluate long-term P movement through tile drainage and its manifestation at the watershed outlet. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/jeq2014.04.0149
      Published: October 3, 2014



    • Kevin W. King, Mark R. Williams, Merrin L. Macrae, Norman R. Fausey, Jane Frankenberger, Douglas R. Smith, Peter J. A. Kleinman and Larry C. Brown
      Phosphorus Transport in Agricultural Subsurface Drainage: A Review

      Phosphorus (P) loss from agricultural fields and watersheds has been an important water quality issue for decades because of the critical role P plays in eutrophication. Historically, most research has focused on P losses by surface runoff and erosion because subsurface P losses were often deemed to be negligible. Perceptions of subsurface P transport, however, have evolved, and considerable work has been conducted to better understand the magnitude and importance of subsurface P transport and to identify practices and treatments that decrease subsurface P loads to surface waters. The objectives of this paper were (i) to critically review research on P transport in subsurface drainage, (ii) to determine factors that control P losses, and (iii) to identify gaps in the current scientific understanding of the role of subsurface drainage in P transport. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/jeq2014.04.0163
      Published: October 3, 2014



  • SURFACE WATER QUALITY

    • Courtney D. Giles, Lydia G. Lee, Barbara J. Cade-Menun, Jane E. Hill, Peter D. F. Isles, Andrew W. Schroth and Gregory K. Druschel
      Characterization of Organic Phosphorus Form and Bioavailability in Lake Sediments using 31 P Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Enzymatic Hydrolysis

      Lake sediments are known to be a significant source of phosphorus (P) to plankton populations under certain biogeochemical conditions; however, the contribution of sediment organic P (Porg) to internal P loads remains poorly understood. We investigated Porg speciation and bioavailability in sediments collected over multiple months from a shallow, eutrophic bay in Lake Champlain (Missisquoi Bay, VT) using solution 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and enzymatic hydrolysis (EH) analysis of sediments collected during years with (2008) and without (2007) algal blooms. Sediments collected during bloom onset (July) and peak bloom (August) months contained the largest proportion of enzyme-labile P, whereas pre- and postbloom sediments were primarily composed of nonlabile P. Monoester P to diester P ratios changed with respect to depth, particularly during bloom periods. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/jeq2014.06.0273
      Published: February 27, 2015



    • Diana Oviedo-Vargas and Todd V. Royer
      The Role of Dissolved Organic Nitrogen in a Nitrate-Rich Agricultural Stream

      Agricultural activities have heavily altered the nitrogen (N) cycle in stream ecosystems draining croplands, particularly in the midwestern United States. However, our knowledge about dissolved organic N (DON) biogeochemistry in agricultural ecosystems is limited. From January 2011 to June 2012, we investigated DON dynamics in an agricultural headwater stream in the midwestern United States. We quantified the contribution of DON to the total dissolved N (TDN) pool and examined the role of DON as a source of N for microbial metabolism. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/jeq2014.07.0314
      Published: February 12, 2015



  • VADOSE ZONE PROCESSES AND CHEMICAL TRANSPORT

    • Jennifer A. Cooper, George W. Loomis, David V. Kalen and Jose A. Amador
      Evaluation of Water Quality Functions of Conventional and Advanced Soil-Based Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems

      Shallow narrow drainfields are assumed to provide better wastewater renovation than conventional drainfields and are used for protection of surface and ground water. To test this assumption, we evaluated the water quality functions of two advanced onsite wastewater treatment system (OWTS) drainfields—shallow narrow (SND) and Geomat (GEO)—and a conventional pipe and stone (P&S) drainfield over 12 mo using replicated (n = 3) intact soil mesocosms. The SND and GEO mesocosms received effluent from a single-pass sand filter, whereas the P&S received septic tank effluent. Between 97.1 and 100% of 5-d biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), fecal coliform bacteria, and total phosphorus (P) were removed in all drainfield types. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/jeq2014.06.0277
      Published: February 27, 2015



    • Nicolas Perdrial, Aaron Thompson, Kelsie LaSharr, Mary Kay Amistadi and Jon Chorover
      Quantifying Particulate and Colloidal Release of Radionuclides in Waste-Weathered Hanford Sediments

      At the Hanford Site in the state of Washington, leakage of hyperalkaline, high ionic strength wastewater from underground storage tanks into the vadose zone has induced mineral transformations and changes in radionuclide speciation. Remediation of this wastewater will decrease the ionic strength of water infiltrating to the vadose zone and could affect the fate of the radionuclides. Although it was shown that radionuclide host phases are thermodynamically stable in the presence of waste fluids, a decrease in solution ionic strength and pH could alter aggregate stability and remobilize radionuclide-bearing colloids and particulate matter. We quantified the release of particulate, colloidal, and truly dissolved Sr, Cs, and I from hyperalkaline-weathered Hanford sediments during a low ionic strength pore water leach and characterized the released particles and colloids using electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/jeq2014.09.0388
      Published: February 20, 2015



  • WASTE MANAGEMENT

    • Peng Liu, Carol J. Ptacek, David W. Blowes, William R. Berti and Richard C. Landis
      Aqueous Leaching of Organic Acids and Dissolved Organic Carbon from Various Biochars Prepared at Different Temperatures

      Biochar has been used as a soil amendment, as a water treatment material, and for carbon (C) sequestration. Thirty-six biochars, produced from wood, agricultural residue, and manure feedstocks at different temperatures, were evaluated for the aqueous leaching of different forms of soluble C. The release of inorganic C (alkalinity), organic acids (OAs), and total dissolved organic C (DOC) was highly variable and dependent on the feedstock and pyrolysis temperature. The pH and alkalinity increased for the majority of samples. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/jeq2014.08.0341
      Published: February 12, 2015



    • Ardeshir Adeli, J. Sheng, J. N. Jenkins and G. Feng
      Composting and Gypsum Amendment of Broiler Litter to Reduce Nutrient Leaching Loss

      The effect of composted litter relative to fresh litter on leaching losses of nutrients has not been well documented. Fresh and composted broiler litter was surface-applied to bermudagrass (hay) [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] established in undisturbed soil columns based on N need of the grass in the presence or absence of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum to evaluate an approach to reduce broiler litter nutrient leaching potential. Columns were periodically leached and biomass was harvested during the 60-d experiment. Total N applied to bermudagrass from broiler litter was 320 kg ha−1. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/jeq2014.04.0144
      Published: February 6, 2015



  • WETLANDS AND AQUATIC PROCESSES

    • Nathan L. Creeper, Paul Shand, Warren Hicks and Rob W. Fitzpatrick
      Porewater Geochemistry of Inland Acid Sulfate Soils with Sulfuric Horizons Following Postdrought Reflooding with Freshwater

      Following the break of a severe drought in the Murray–Darling Basin, rising water levels restored subaqueous conditions to dried inland acid sulfate soils with sulfuric horizons (pH <3.5). Equilibrium dialysis membrane samplers were used to investigate in situ changes to soil acidity and abundance of metals and metalloids following the first 24 mo of restored subaqueous conditions. The rewetted sulfuric horizons remained severely acidified (pH ∼4) or had retained acidity with jarosite visibly present after 5 mo of continuous subaqueous conditions. A further 19 mo of subaqueous conditions resulted in only small additional increases in pH (∼0.5–1 pH units), with the largest increases occurring within the uppermost 10 cm of the soil profile. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/jeq2014.09.0372
      Published: February 20, 2015



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