Crop Residues Presentation Descriptions


Tuesday, August 15, 2017

Breakfast on Your Own

 

7:00am-5:45pm                Registration & Customer Service 

8:00 – 8:30am    Background, Goals, and Challenges Leading to this Workshop 

                                Doug Karlen, USDA-ARS, Committee Chair

                        As Workshop Chair, my presentations will provide the background, goals and challenges leading to this Workshop and a final wrap-up and identification of the next steps toward developing products representing a consensus viewpoint on the complex topic being addressed.

               

Session #1           Soil Carbon Status and Trends in the US Corn Belt Region 
 

8:30-9:05am       Soil-Plant-Microbe Interactions and Soil Organic Carbon (SOC): A Review of the Basic Principles

                                Charles Rice, Kansas State University

9:05-9:40am       Corn Stover for Advanced Biofuels—Soil “Lorax” Perspectives

                                Jane Johnson, USDA-ARS

                               Crop residues serve numerous agroecosystem function, harvesting these materials must be done in a manner that protects the soil. Soil is the thin layer that stand be us and starvation. Strategies to protect the soil resource to balance current and future societal needs will be discussed.

9:40-10:15am     The Pros and Cons of Residue Harvesting

                                David Clay, South Dakota State

                               Globally scientists and policy makers are interested to know how much crop residue can be sustainably removed for cellulosic ethanol production. Research shows that the sustainable crop residue harvest percentage in annual cropping systems is influenced by many factors including the length of time that the field was cultivated, crop rotation, soil texture, climatic conditions, initial carbon content of the soil, and crop yields. However, the ability to conduct meta-analysis and modeling studies across diverse agroecosystems is complicated by inconsistences in the soil carbon data sets. This presentation will discuss the strength and weakness of these calculation.

 

10:15-10:45am   Coffee Break, Networking, Diamond Sponsor Exhibits

 

10:45-11:45am   Breakout Discussions 

                                What do we know and what don’t we understand about conversion of crop residue to soil organic carbon? Who do we trust?

 

12:00-12:30pm  Breakout Group Reports 

                                Critical questions to be answered.

12:30-1:30pm     On Site Working Lunch: Crop Residues for Conservation or Bioenergy–A Producer’s Dilemma 

                                Ron Alverson, South Dakota Farmer & Grain Ethanol Proponent

                                A producer's dilemma......Harvesting/removing crop residues provide a short term economic gain, but result in a longer term reduction of soil carbon stocks and crop productivity.

 

Session #2           Modeling Soil Organic Carbon Changes 

1:30-2:15pm       Biofuels From Crop Residue: Soil Organic Carbon and Climate Impacts in the US and India

                                Adam Liska, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

                               The transformation of crop residue to soil organic carbon and CO2 is a conserved process that occurs globally. Due to the mathematics of carbon intensity calculations found in government regulations, the amount of CO2 emitted from crop residue per unit of energy in biofuel is largely independent of the amount of residue removed and the location of its removal, as shown by results from the US and India.

 

2:15-2:45pm       Coffee Break, Networking, Diamond Sponsor Exhibits

2:45-3:30pm       SOC Models: What are the Differences?

                                Steven DelGrosso, USDA-ARS

                                Assumptions and consequences of different modeling approaches will be discussed. Given current stakeholder needs and recent observational evidence, what model improvements should be prioritized?

3:30-4:15pm       Modeling and Life Cycle Analysis of Impacts of Corn Stover Harvest

                                Keith Paustian, Colorado State University

                               We will analyze impacts of variability of edaphic and management factors on sustainability and profitability of corn stover utilization as a biofuel feedstock.

 

4:30-5:30pm       Breakout Discussions 

                                What do we really know and what don’t we understand regarding the modeling of plant biomass to SOC conversion rates and processes? How might a changing climate impact the processes? What degree of certainty is needed for consistent and appropriate policy guidelines?

 

5:45-6:15pm       Breakout Group Reports 

                                Critical questions that need to be answered.

               

6:15-7:30pm       Reception 

7:30pm                 Dinner On Your Own

 

Wednesday, August 16, 2017

Breakfast on Your Own

 

7:30-5:30pm       Registration & Customer Service 

8:00-8:30am       Review of Day 1: Think Tank Trends, Challenges, Concerns and Early Indicators of Consensus, Or Not 

                                Alan Chute, Advanced Learning Systems, Lean Six Sigma Master Black Belt

 

Session #3           Measurement and Verification of Stover Harvest/Removal Rates for Regulatory and GHG Accounting Purposes 

8:30-9:15am       Industry Perspectives, Challenges and Strategies to Verify SOM in the Feedstock Supply Chain

                                Frank Rydl, DuPont Industrial Biosciences, and Alan Keller, POET-DSM

9:15-10:00am     Catalyzing and Verifying Sustainability in the Production of Commodity Crops

                                Allison Thomson, Field to Market Organization

                                Advancing the sustainability of commodity crop production in the United States requires coordinated efforts between growers, their customers, and society. One program connecting the full spectrum of the commodity supply chain is Field to Market, which measures key environmental outcomes from crop fields, and connects growers and companies to resources to measure and improve on performance over time. Most recently, a system to enable third-party verifiable claims around sustainability efforts and improvements has been developed. This presentation will discuss the development and implementation of the program and claims system.

 

10:00-10:30am   Coffee Break, Networking, Diamond Sponsor Exhibits

 

10:30-11:30am   Breakout Discussions 

                                What do we know? What don’t we know? Who do we trust? What degree of certainty is needed for consistent policy guidelines?

 

11:45-12:15pm   Breakout Group Reports

                                Critical questions that need to be answered.

12:15-1:15pm     On Site Working Lunch: Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Corn Stover Production 

                                Rebecca Locker, ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Co.

                               We compute greenhouse gas emissions for corn stover production in the Midwestern U.S. using publically-available data from the USDA-ARS Resilient Economic Agricultural Practices (REAP) program, and a robust system expansion method for the analysis. The methods are generally applicable to lifecycle assessments of bio-products produced from agricultural residues.

 

Session #4           Geospatial Variation and Measurement Changes in SOC and Erosion Risk at the Field and Landscape Scale 

1:15-2:00pm       Tools in Determining Variation in SOM and Erosion Risk at the Field and Landscape Scale

                                David Muth, AgSolver Inc.

                                We will look at how variability at a subfield scale impacts the operational implementation of corn stover removal. The discussion will connect the realities of variability in working ag land and the challenge of sustainable residue harvest.

 

2:00-2:30pm       Coffee Break, Networking, Diamond Sponsor Exhibits

2:30-3:15pm       Crop Residue Management Decisions: How They Influence Daily Soil Erosion Estimates

                                Richard Cruse, Iowa State University

                                Harvesting crop residue can be like playing Russian roulette? Soil erosion impacts associated with removing crop residues across different topographies and for a range of rainfall conditions will be presented, illustrating similarities between playing with a partly loaded gun and poorly planned residue harvest schemes.

3:15-4:00pm       Measuring SOC Changes at the Field and Landscape Scale

                                Jeff Novak, USDA-ARS

                                This presentation will explore how SOC contents change across fields and larger landscapes, detail how pedogenic processes promote SOC protection to biotic and abiotic degradation processes, and how soils can arrive at different SOC saturation levels under contrasting tillage/residue management plans.   

 

4:15-5:15pm         Breakout Discussions 

                                What do we know? What don’t we know? Who do we trust? What is needed for consistent policy guidelines?

 

5:30-6:00pm       Breakout Group Reports 

                                Critical questions that need to be answered.

               

6:00pm                 Dinner On Your Own

 

Thursday, August 17, 2017

Breakfast on Your Own

 

7:30-8:00am       Registration & Customer Service

                             

8:00-8:30am       Review of Days 1 and 2: What Trends, Challenges, Critical Questions and Research Needs are Emerging? Is Consensus in Sight?

                                Alan Chute, Advanced Learning Systems, Lean Six Sigma Master Black Belt

 

Session #5           Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA): How is Carbon Intensity Determined from Crop Residues?

                               

8:30-9:15am       Life-Cycle Analysis of Biofuels and Impacts of Soil Organic Carbon Changes for Biofuel Greenhouse Gas Emissions

                                Michael Wang, USDOE and Zhangcai Qin, USDOE

                                Biofuels are pursued for benefits of energy security, greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions, among other environmental, social, and economic benefits. Life-cycle analysis (LCA) is required to assess GHG emission effects of biofuels. Argonne has been developing and applying the GREET model for biofuel LCA. For second generation biofuels with cellulosic biomass feedstocks, soil organic carbon changes of growing biomass or collecting crop residues are an important factor affecting biofuel GHG results. This this presentation will show biofuel LCA results and how SOC affects biofuel GHG results.

9:15-10:00am     Real-World Overview of LCA Modeling

                                Stefan Unnasch, Life Cycle Associates, LLC and Tom Darlington, Air Improvement Resource, Inc.

 

10:00-10:30am   Coffee Break, Networking, Diamond Sponsor Exhibits

 

10:30-12:00pm   Breakout Discussions

                               What does it take to make stover harvest sustainable? What needs further R&D? How can these be packaged into action items? Who should take the lead for each issue? Do we have a consensus?

               

12:15-1:15pm   On Site Working Lunch: Perennial Grasses for Marginally-Productive Cropland: Challenges and Opportunities for the Bio Economy

                             Rob Mitchell, USDA-ARS

                             Multiple feedstocks will be required to meet the demands of a robust bio economy. The challenges and opportunities of meeting feedstock demand with perennial grasses will be addressed.

 

Session #6           Life-Cycle Assessment of Biofuels: Integrating Current Science Into Policy

                                

1:15-2:00pm       The California Air Resource Board’s Low-carbon Fuel Standard:  Determining the Carbon Intensity of Corn Stover for Biofuel

                                Anil Prabhu, California Air Resource Board

2:00-2:45pm       The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Renewable Fuel Standard: Overview in Determining GHG Emissions from Corn Stover

                                Aaron Levy, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

 

2:45-3:15pm        Break

 

3:15-3:45pm       Breakout Group Reports

                                A synthesis of action items, research needs, and strategies for improved CI modeling and advanced biofuels policies.

 

3:45-5:00pm       Rapid Fire Response to Workshop Outcomes – 10 minutes each

                                Farmer – Ron Alverson, South Dakota Farmer & Grain Ethanol Proponent

                                CARB – Anil Prabhu, California Air Resource Board

                                EPA – TBD

                                ETOH Plants – TBD

                                Equipment Manufacturer – TBD

                                ETOH Associations – TBD

                                Corn Growers – TBD

5:00-5:15pm      Closing

                                Doug Karlen, USDA-ARS, Committee Chair

 

5:15pm              Workshop Adjourns